Official Reports

First Brigade, 2nd Division, First Army Corps

General Robinson's tent at Gettysburg, Cemetery Hill

Pictured in this very rough sketch by A.R. Waud, is 2nd Division Commander Brig-General John C. Robinson's Fly Tent on the Battle-field of Gettysburg.  These rough sketches were made on the spot and if one can see past the short-hand rendering, they are a direct window into the moment.  General Robinson, with his distinctive long beard can be seen sitting 'Indian sytle' on the ground in the tent among his staff officers.  An orderly stands guard.  If only there was a little bit more detail...


Table of Contents

Introduction

Lieutenant-Colonel N. Walter Batchelder included a list of 13th Massachusetts officers present at the battle of Gettysburg in the report  he wrote and sent to Massachusetts Governor John Andrew.  I had the idea to include portraits of these men on this page.  Every officer pictured here was in the engagement of July 1st.

 I do not have portraits of the following named officers: 1st-Lieutenant David Whiston, 1st-Lieutenant Harry N. Washburn, 1st-Lieutenant Thomas R. Wells, 2nd-Lieutenant Charles W. Whitcomb,  2nd-Lieutenant William A. Alley, 2d-Lieutenant Joseph H. Stuart, and 2nd-Lieutenant Edwin Fay Rollins.  Any assistance from readers in locating portraits of these missing officers is appreciated, and, I could use a better image of Ordnance Officer Lieutenant Melvin Smith.   Please write me via the Contact page of this website if you can help.  [B.F.;  March 18, 2017].

Colonel Samuel Haven Leonard Lieutenant Colonel N. Walter Batchelder Major Jacob Parker Gould

Colonel Samuel H. Leonard, Lieutenant-Colonel N. Walter Batchelder & Major Jacob Parker Gould.  

The report the Brigadier-General John C Robinson, Commander of the 2nd Division, is included in all the regimental histories of the units of his division, provided they published a history, along with General Robinson's addendum addressed to Commanding General Meade.  It was my intention to post this report of the battle with that of Lieutenant-Colonel Batchelder's report for the 13th Massachusetts and Batchelder's letter to Massachusetts Governor John Andrew.  The letter contains more detail than Batchelder's report published in the War Records.  The transcription of this letter was shared with me by Mr. Jeff. Kowalis.

Because the 104th New York deployed in conjunction with the 13th Massachusetts on July 1st, I thought it would also be useful to include their report on this page.  I then reasoned, I might as well include all reports from the 1st Brigade regiments and commanders here, and thats what comprises the content of this page.

 These reports are only a starting point for anyone interested in studying the division's part in the battle on July 1st, and the following days.  There are countless other resources.

  It is necessary to look at all the Confederate reports and materials available from Robert Rodes' Division, and materials from 11th Corps units and batteries that assisted in the repulse of Colonel Edward O'Neal's attack.  There are materials from regimental histories, state histories, soldiers' memoirs, news clippings, etc. etc. so a full posting of resources would be impractical here. I have excluded Acting Corps Commander Alexander Doubleday's report of the 1st day's battle because he wrote a small book, and only a portion of it pertains to Robinson's Division.  These materials of course are readily available at the Gettysburg National Park Library and other places.

I have included General John Newton's 1st Corps report because it describes this brigade's manoeuvres on July 2 & July 3. 

A good deal of the regimental reports takes up the march away from Gettysburg and back into Virginia, thereby setting the stage for the next phase of the war.


PICTURE CREDITS:  Image of Robert Bruce Henderson is from the collection of Mr. Tim Sewell, a descendant of 13th Mass soldier James Lowell.  The images of Lt-Col. N.Walter Batchelder, Jacob A.Howe, Morton Tower, Samuel C. Whitney, &  James Gibson of the 13th Mass., and Lt.-Col. J. MacThomson, 107th PA Inf. are from the Army Heritage Education Center at Carlisle, PA;  Moses Palmer is from the Massachusetts State House collection of  State Representatives;  Charles E. Horne was provided by Mr. Stephen Heinstrom of  Stoneham, Massachusetts.  The other 13th Mass officers were shared with me by collector friends or downloaded from auction house sights.  Colonel Richard Coulter is from the Westmoreland County Historical Society.  Colonel Gilbert Prey is from the New York Military Museum, [http://dmna.ny.gov/historic/mil-hist.htm];  The John Allen Maxwell illustration is from Civil War Times Illustrated;   ALL IMAGES have been edited in PHOTOSHOP.

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Report of Brig.-General John C. Robinson,
First Corps;  2nd Division Commander

O.R. SERIES I--VOLUME XXVII; Part 1

Report of Brig. Gen. John C. Robinson, U.S. Army, commanding Second Division. 

Hdqrs. Second Division, First Army Corps,    
July 18, 1863.

Sir:  I have the honor to submit the following report of the operations of this division in the engagements of the 1st, 2d, and 3d, instant:

General John C. Robinson

On the morning of Wednesday, the 1st the division marched from Emmitsburg, bringing up the rear of the column, and when about 3 miles from Gettysburg, hearing firing in front, it was pushed rapidly forward, and arriving on the field, was placed, by order of the major-general commanding First Corps, in reserve, near the seminary.  Almost immediately after taking this position, I received notice that the enemy was advancing a heavy column of infantry on the right of our line of battle, when I sent the Second Brigade, under Brigadier-General Baxter, to meet it.  Orders being received at this time to hold the seminary, the First Brigade, under Brigadier-General Paul, was set at work to intrench the ridge on which it is situated.  I then rode to the right of the line, to superintend the operations there.  On my arrival, I found my Second Brigade so placed as to cover our right flank, but with too great an interval between it and the line of the First Division.  I at once directed General Baxter to change front forward on his left battalion, and to close this interval, toward which the enemy was making his way.  By the time this change was effected, the whole front of the brigade became hotly engaged, but succeeded in repulsing the attack. The enemy, however, soon after brought up fresh forces in increased masses, when, finding the position so seriously threatened, I sent for and brought up the First Brigade, and the remaining battalions as a support to his second position.  The enemy now made repeated attacks on the division, in all of which he was handsomely repulsed, with the loss of three flags and about 1,000 prisoners.

In one of these attacks I was deprived of the services of the veteran commander of the First Brigade, Brigadier-General Paul, who fell, severely wounded, while gallantly directing and encouraging his command.

The division held this position on the right – receiving and repelling the fierce attacks of a greatly superior force, not only in front, but on the flank, and, when the enemy’s ranks were broken, charging upon him and capturing his colors and men – from about noon until nearly 5 p.m., when I received orders to withdraw.  These orders not being received until all other troops (except Stewart’s battery) had commenced moving to the rear, the division held its ground until outflanked right and left, and retired fighting.

From the nature of the enemy’s attacks, frequent changes were rendered necessary, and they were made promptly under a galling fire.  No soldiers ever fought better, or inflicted severer blows upon the enemy.  When out of ammunition, their boxes were replenished from those of their killed and wounded comrades.

The instances of distinguished gallantry are too numerous to be embodied in this report, and I leave it to the brigade and regimental commanders to do justice to those under their immediate command.  Where all did so well, it is difficult to discriminate.  As, however, they came under my personal observation, I cheerfully indorse the remarks of General Baxter in commendation of Colonel Coulter, Eleventh Pennsylvania; Colonel Wheelock, Ninety-seventh New York; Colonel Lyle, Ninetieth Pennsylvania; Colonel Bates and Lieutenant-Colonel Allen, Twelfth Massachusetts; Lieutenant-Colonel Moesch, Eighty-third New York, and Major Foust, Eight-eighth Pennsylvania.

After the fall of General Paul, the command of the First Brigade devolved successively upon Colonel Leonard, Thirteenth Massachusetts, Colonel Root, Ninety-fourth New York, and Colonel Coulter, Eleventh Pennsylvania, all of whom were wounded while exercising the command.

After withdrawing from this contest, I took up a position on a ridge to the left of the cemetery, facing the Emmitsburg road, and remained there until afternoon of the next day, when I was relieved by a division of the Second Corps, and ordered to the support of the Eleventh Corps.  In the evening, I was ordered to the left of our line, but was soon after directed to return.

On Friday morning, 3d instant, the division was massed, and held ready to push forward to the support of the Twelfth Corps, then engaged with the enemy on our right.

About noon, I was informed by the major-general commanding the army that he anticipated an attack on the cemetery by the enemy’s forces massed in the town, and was directed to so place my command that if our line gave way I could attack the enemy on his flank.  I proceeded to make this change of position at the moment the enemy commenced the terrific artillery fire of that day.  Never before were troops so exposed to such a fire of shot and shell, and yet the movement was made in perfect order and with little loss.

Later in the day, the enemy having made his attack on our left instead of the center, I was ordered to the right of the Second Corps, which position I held until Sunday, when the line was withdrawn.

My thanks are due to Brigadier-Generals Baxter and Paul for the able and zealous manner in which they handled their brigades. The officers of my staff were actively engaged during the whole of the three days’ engagements.  Lieutenant [Samuel M.] Morgan, acting assistant adjutant-general; Lieutenant [Frederick M.] Hallock, aide-de-camp, and Lieutenants Bratton and Mead, acting aides, were at all times distinguished for their gallantry and good conduct.  Captain [John G.]* Hovey, acting assistant inspector-general, was wounded and taken from the field early in the fight.  Lieutenant Smith,** ordnance officer, was diligent in the performance of his duty, and collected and turned in 2,251 muskets and a large number of equipments.

It affords me pleasure to call special attention to the gallant conduct of one of my orderlies, Sergt. Ebenezer S. Johnson, First Maine Cavalry, whose chevrons should be exchanged for the epaulette.  When we make officers of such men, the soldier receives his true reward and the service great benefit.

This division went into battle with less than 2,500 officers and men, and sustained a loss of 1,667, of which 124 were commissioned officers.

I transmit herewith a nominal and tabular statement of casualties, showing the loss of each regiment.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,                
JNO. C. ROBINSON,      
Brigadier-General, Commanding Division.

*Although the report says John G. Hovey was the acting inspector-general, that position belonged to Charles H. Hovey of the same regiment, 13th Massachusetts.

**Another 13th Massachusetts man was ordnance officer; Lt. Melvin Smith.


Captain Charles Henry Hovey, thumbnail
Lieutenant Melvin Smith, Ordnance Officer

Captain Charles H. Hovey & Lieutenant Melvin Smith of Division Staff.  Unfortunately this is the only image I have of Lt. Smith.

When General Meade wrote his action report dated October, 1863, he failed to mention Gen. Robinson's 2nd Division, to which slight General Robinson replied:

ADDENDA.

Hdqrs. Second Division, First Army Corps,
November 15, 1863.

Maj. Gen. George G. Meade,
Commanding Army of the Potomac:

General:  I feel it is my duty to inform you of the intense mortification and disappointment felt by my division in reading your report of the battle of Gettysburg.

For nearly four hours on July 1 we were hotly engaged against overwhelming numbers, repulsed repeated attacks of the enemy, captured three flags and a very large number of prisoners, and were the last to leave the field.

The division formed the right of the line of battle of the First Corps, and during the whole time had to fight the enemy in front and protect our right flank (the division of the Eleventh Corps being at no time less than half a mile in rear).  We went into action with less than 2,500 men and lost considerably more than half our number.

We have been proud of our efforts on that day, and hoped that they would be recognized.  It is but natural we should feel disappointed that we are not once referred to in the report of the commanding general.

Trusting that you will investigate this matter and give us due credit, I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JNO. C. ROBINSON,
Brigadier-General, Commanding Division.


John Maxwell Illustration from Civil War Times

General Meade's reply to this communication, if he ever made any, cannot be found in the War Records.

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Reports of Lieut.-Colonel N. Walter Batchelder, 13th Mass. Vols.

Lt-Col. N.W. Batchelder sent off a report of the 13th Regiment's part in the battle to Governor John Andrew, along with a list of wounded, [missing]. Batchelder's report to Gov. Andrew offers more detail, than his report in the official records.

Lieutenant Robert Bruce Henderson Captain Moses P. Palmer 1st Lieutenant Joseph Colburn

2nd-Lieutenant Robert Bruce Henderson, Acting Adjutant, Captain Moses P. Palmer, & Captain Joseph Colburn.

Letter to Massachusetts Governor Andrew

Headquarters 13th Regt. Vols
Near Gettysburg, Pa.  July 5th, 1863
To His Excellence John A. Andrew
Governor of Massachusetts

Lieutenant Colonel N. Walter Batchelder

I have the honor to report the part taken by the Thirteenth Regiment in the battles of July 1st, 2nd and 3rd. On the morning of July 1st, the First Corps, marched from their camp near Emmitsburg towards Gettysburg, where their advance was attacked by the enemy, in force, at about 12 o’clock at Seminary Hills.

The Second Division of the Corps took position on the right the Thirteenth having the extreme right. Immediately after coming into position at about 1:30 PM they came under the fire of the enemy from the front and flank. At the commencement of the action by our Regiment, Col. Leonard was slightly wounded in the left arm when he retired and the command, devolved upon me.  Our Regt. was ordered to this position to check and stay the flank movements threatened by the enemy. Unsupported it sustained this position under constant fire for an hour and a quarter when it made a charge and captured 132 prisoners, seven of whom were Commissioned Officers. This number of prisoners outnumbered the men of the Regt. then in line. These prisoners were safely conducted to the rear in charge of Lieut. Whitcomb. Subsequently our regiment was reinforced by the 16th Maine Vols. The regiment continued engaged in battle with the Brigade three hours, when the inferior [superior] force of the enemy pressed so hard, that our Corps fell back to Cemetery Hill, as a stronger position. In passing through the town the enemy pressed so closely as to capture a few officers and men who were assisting our wounded to comfortable quarters. Many of the wounded were also taken prisoners. It is difficult to ascertain their names at this time. The men of this Regt. fought bravely holding their position in line to the last. The Officers behaved in a manner highly creditable to them.  There were 260 men in the ranks who went into action.  The following are the Officers present at the commencement of the battle. Col. Leonard, Lieut. Col. Wm. Batchelder, Maj. JP Gould, Lieut. RB Anderson, Acting Adjuctant, Captain MP Palmer and Jos. Colburn, Lieutenant Howe, Morton Tower, David Whiston, HN Washburn, TR Wells, SC Whitney, CW Whitcomb, Wm B. Kimball, Jas. Gibson, Jos. H. Stuart,* Wm T. Damrell, SE Carey, Wm R. Warner, CE Horn, Wm A. Alley, and EF Rollins.

When the Corps took position about Cemetery Hill, our Brigade was assigned a position on the immediate right of the Hill, in support of the batteries there; which place we occupied till the morning of July 2nd when we were placed in support of the batteries on the summit of the hill, and even more exposed during the day to the fierce cannonading of that point.  Here we remained with some necessary changes till near dark, when from the wavering of our troops on the Left, who had been in a fierce battle for hours, made in apprehension that victory might be lost, our Division advanced to their assistance in line of battle at “double quick”, and remained supporting their forces until the withdrawl of the enemy acknowledged the defeat of their great assault upon our right.  We returned to a position in front of the Hill battery and near the village for the night.  On the morning of July 3rd, we again took position in rear of and in support of the hill batteries, we remained with some changes during most of the day exposed to the most terrific crossfire from all of the enemys concentrated artillery in the fierce attack upon this hill and now our center.  When at 5 oclock PM it was doubtful whether the enemy then making an impetuous charge in the lines of battle upon our center could be repulsed with the forces present at that point, we were ordered up at double quick to the reinforcement, under even more fierce artillery practice.  The enemy charge was repulsed.  This closed the fighting for the three days.  Our Division entrenched itself and remained doing sharpshooting Pickets duty which has added several names to our casualty list.  Before daylight of to-day, the enemy retired in a body. The men have nobly endured from days of severe labors without sleep and with very little food, but the battle is won. There are many things of interest that I would add if time permitted.   I will give you a more detailed account at some future time.

I have the honor to be Very Respectfully
Your obedient servant
Wm Batchelder
Lieut. Co. Comdr. 13th Mass. Vols.

Accompanying this is a complete list of casualties as far as at present can be ascertained. The present effective strength of the Regt. is 15 officers and 79 Enlisted men.

PS. We have just received orders to “fall in” and follow up the retreating enemy.  We expect to accomplish great things before they can cross the Potomac River.  It has been glorious thus far,

NWB

*This name was originally transcribed by the owner of the letter as' Jos. H. Linhurst.'  There is no record of anyone named Linhurst in the roster of the 13th Mass.   I do not have a copy of the original letter to say conclusively that 'Linhurst' is a mis-reading of Batchelder's hand-writing.   But with a fair amount certainty I can say this is supposed to be Joseph H. Stewart/Stuart, a 13th Mass officer who was present; - I have a story posted about him on 'July 3' page.  - Brad Forbush, 3/17/2017.


More of the officers named in Lt-Col. Batchelder's Report

1st Lieutenant Jacob A. Howe Lieutenant Morton Tower Lieutenant Samuel C. Whitney

1st-Lieutenant Jacob A. Howe, saved the colors at Gettysburg, July first.  1st-Lieutenant Morton Tower, was captured and sent to Libby Prison.  He escaped in the famous prison break of February, 1864 and made it safely to Union lines.  1st-Lieutenant Samuel C. Whitney, pictured right.

Lieutenant William B. Kimball First Lieutenant James Gibson Lieutenant William S. Damrell

1st-Lieutenant William B. Kimball, 2nd-Lieutenant James Gibson, 2nd-Lieutenant William S. Damrell.

Lieutenant Samuel E. Cary Lieutenant Charles E. Horne Lieutenant William R. Warner

2nd-Lieutenant Samuel E. Cary, 2nd-Lieutenant Charles E. Horne, lost an arm in the Overland Campaign later in the war, & 2nd-Lieutenant William R. Warner pictured before the war.  Horne & Warner received their commissions the day of the battle, July 1st.

Lieutenant-Colonel Batchelder's Official Report

HDQRS. THIRTEENTH MASSACHUSETTS VOLUNTEERS,            
August 21, 1863.

Sir:   In compliance with circular received August 18, 1863, I have the honor to submit the following report of the part taken by my regiment in the movements of the army, from June 28 till its arrival at Warrenton, Va.:

June 28.--Broke camp at Middletown, Md. at 3.30 p.m., and marched over the old mountain road to near Frederick City, arriving in camp at 8 p.m. Distance marched was 9 miles.

June 29.--Marched at 5 a.m., passing through Emmitsburg at 5.30 p.m.; camped near the town. Distance marched was 26 miles, the greater part of the march being over mud roads in very bad condition, owing to continued rains.

June 30.--Marched at 8 a.m., and, after proceeding about 6 miles, crossing the Pennsylvania line, halted and formed line of battle, the First Division having encountered the pickets of the enemy.

July 1.--Marched at 6 a.m. After proceeding about 4 miles, heard cannonading in front, our cavalry and flying artillery having engaged the advance of the enemy. We rapidly neared the firing, and General Paul notified the brigade that they were immediately going into an engagement.

We left the road, and moved out to the front of Gettysburg, and soon came under the fire of the enemy.  The enemy so far outnumbering us, our brigade was sent into action by regiments, and with so great an interval between my regiment and the one on my left that we were not able to properly support each other. My regiment was on the extreme right flank of the division and the edge of the woods in which the action commenced.

Colonel Leonard was wounded early in the fight, and the command devolved upon me.

A steady fire was kept up by the men for upward of an hour. At last, being seriously annoyed by the fire of a regiment of the enemy sheltered behind the banks of Chambersburg pike road,* I ordered a charge on the road, which resulted in driving the enemy from their position, leaving in our hands 132 prisoners, 7 of whom were commissioned officers. They were safely sent to the rear and turned over to the provost guard.

A division of the Eleventh Corps on our right giving way before a charge of the enemy, left our flank exposed, and, no support coming up, a retreat was ordered, and we fell back through the town to the heights in the rear, where the command was reorganized. About 100 were taken prisoners on the way to the rear. The regiment went into action with 260 muskets. The total loss in killed, wounded, and prisoners in the day's battle was 189.

July 2.--Supported batteries on Cemetery Hill until nearly dark, when we were ordered to the left. Reached the point of attack too late to participate in the action. Returned to our position on the right, and were ordered to the front of the batteries and near the town.

July 3.--At daylight were ordered to the rear of the batteries. Remained there until afternoon, when we were sent to support the center, which the enemy were making desperate efforts to break. Reached the point of attack as the enemy were handsomely forced back by the Second Corps. Relieved the troops that had been engaged, built earthworks in the edge of the woods, and, after detailing a strong picket, bivouacked.

July 4.--Picket skirmishing was kept up all day, with very few casualties. Rain fell nearly all day.

July 5.--At daylight discovered that the enemy had retreated. At 9 a.m. moved to the left, and occupied part of the ground on which the Third Corps had fought.

July 6.--Formed line at 6 a.m., and marched toward Emmitsburg. After marching 6 miles, were halted and marched back 2 miles, resting in a piece of woods until afternoon. Again formed and marched to within 2 miles of Emmitsburg, and went into camp.

July 7.--Marched by the rough mountain road to Belleville; distance, 20 miles.

July 8.--Marched through Middletown and South Mountain Gap, and threw up earthworks on the west side of the ridge. Distance marched, 18 miles. 

July 10.--Marched through Boonsborough to Beaver Creek and built more earthworks. After completing the works, were ordered to change front to rear, and to build another line of works.

July 11.--Late in the afternoon went on picket.

July 12.--Withdrawn from picket early in the morning, marched to Funkstown and on the Hagerstown road. Formed line of battle on the left of the road, and again intrenched.

July 14.--At daylight it was evident the enemy had left our front. Marched at 2 p.m., and reached Williamsport before night. Went into camp. 

July 15.--Marched early, and camped at night near Crampton's Gap.

July 16.--Marched through Crampton's Gap and Burkittsville, camping near Berlin.

July 18.--Crossed the Potomac on pontoons, and camped near Waterford.

July 19.--Marched to Hamilton.

July 20.--Marched to Middleburg.

July 22.--Marched as rear guard to the supply train. Arrived at White Plains at 3 a.m. of the 23d.

July 23.--Marched at 10 a.m., and reached Warrenton at 4 p.m., and went into camp.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,                  
  N. W. BATCHELDER,        
 Lieutenant-Colonel, Comdg. Thirteenth Massachusetts Vols.

 Capt. BYRON PORTER,
           Assistant Adjutant-General.


*Mummasburg Road

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Reports of Col. Richard Coulter,
Acting Brigade Commander, 1st Brigade, 2nd Division

Post war image of Colonel Richard Coulter

All of the commanding officers of General Paul's 1st Brigade were wounded or captured, so a proper report was never written.  This is one reason why the part played by Paul's Brigade in action on July 1st is still mis-understood.  Colonel Richard Coulter of the 11th PA assumed command of Paul's Brigade the evening of July 1.  He filed the official report below for his own 2nd Brigade, but in an oral statement to battlefield historian John Bachelder, Colonel Coulter said:  

“A portion of the First Brigade (Paul's) had been engaged in constructing a temporary breast-work of rails in the grove west of the Seminary.  General Paul was seriously wounded during the 1st day's engagement.  Colonel [Adrian R.] Root of the 94th New York Vols had already been wounded which accounts for no official report of the brigade being made.  The brigade consisted however, of the 13th Mass. Vols, 104th N.Y. Vols, in the order named which were formed on the right, in an open grove, facing the Mummasburg road and engaged with O'Neal's Alabama Brigade;  The 16th Maine Vols, 107th Penna.Vols. and the 94th N.Y. Vols., faced to the west supporting Baxter's line. The brigade arrived and went into position at the time of the capture of Iverson's regiments.”

Post war image of Richard Coulter courtesy of the Westmoreland County Historical Society.


Reports of Col. Richard Coulter, Eleventh Pennsylvania Infantry,
commanding regiment and First Brigade

Gettysburg, Pa., July 6, 1863.

SIR: I report the following as the part taken by my command in the action with the enemy on July 1, near Gettysburg, Pa.:

The First Division had been for some time engaged when this brigade, about 11 a.m., was massed on the west side and near the embankment of the railroad. At this point I was directed by the general commanding the brigade to proceed with the Ninety-seventh New York Volunteers, Colonel Wheelock, and my own, Eleventh Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers, which I did, deploying both regiments, and moved with skirmishers about a quarter of a mile beyond the railroad track.  Discovering that the enemy’s movement was being directed against the left flank, I changed front to the left, and took position on the ridge (where the fighting subsequently took place), connecting the left of my command upon the right of General Cutlers’ brigade, of the First Division.  I was here joined on the right by General Baxter, who resumed command of the entire line. 

The skirmishers had been a short time engaged, and about 12:30 p.m. the firing became general along the entire line.  The enemy, after several attempts, finding it impossible to force our position, commenced moving his troops toward the left, under a galling and effective fire from our line.  While this was being done, a sally was made by part of the brigade (the Ninety-seventh New York Volunteers and my own regiment engaging in it), which resulted in the capture of about 500 of the enemy.

The line was steadily maintained under a brisk fire until after 3 p.m., at which time, the ammunition being exhausted, we were relieved by a portion of the First Brigade. Upon being so relieved, the regiment was moved to the railroad embankment on the left, and there remained in support of a battery until ordered to fall back to the town of Gettysburg, the enemy having in the meantime turned both flanks; then retired with the brigade along the railroad, suffering most severely from a galling fire of musketry and artillery.  The division immediately assumed another position in the rear of the town, on Cemetery Hill.  Here my regiment was transferred to the First Brigade, and I assumed command of the brigade. At this point, therefore, my report ceases as connected with the Second Brigade.

The loss in my regiment during this period was: Killed – enlisted men, 5; wounded – commissioned officers, 6; enlisted men, 44; missing – commissioned officers, 3; enlisted men, 63; of which a report has heretofore been furnished.  Some of those reported missing, it has since been ascertained, were wounded; others were secured upon the retaking of the town, the residue having been taken by the enemy.  An additional and detailed report of the losses will be made as soon as the necessary information can be had.*

The conduct of both officers and men as they came under my observation during this trying engagement was most creditable, so much so as to secure even the encomiums of the enemy.  Not a single case of faltering came under my notice.

I desire to mention the gallantry of Colonel Wheelock and Lieutenant-Colonel Spofford, of the Ninety-seventh new York Volunteers, the first for the manner in which he brought his regiment into the action and sustained it, the second on account of his moving forward and fighting the skirmishers of the two regiments as he did. Both subsequently fell into the hands of the enemy.

I wish also to call attention to the conduct of one of General Robinson’s mounted orderlies, Sergeant Johnson, of the First Maine Cavalry.  The promptitude with which he conveyed orders and communicated information was highly creditable. He has proved himself on this as well as on other fields to be a brave soldier.

I have the honor to remain, yours, respectfully,

R. COULTER,    
Colonel Eleventh Pennsylvania Volunteers.

The acting assistant adjutant General,
             Second Brigade, Second Division First Army Corps.


First Brigade Report

Baltimore, Md., July 9, 1863.

Sir:  The following is a report of the part taken by the First Brigade in the engagements with the enemy, from the 1st to the 4th instant, at Gettysburg, Pa.:

My regiment was transferred from the Second to the First Brigade about 5 p.m. on the 1st instant, when the division was formed in the cemetery.  I was directed to assume command on account of the disability of General Paul and loss of other field officers.  I can, therefore, state but little of the part taken in the engagement of the earlier part of the day on the west side of town, excepting what is contained in the reports of the several regimental commanders, which accompany and are made part of this report.

In the action, this brigade was formed on the left of the Second Brigade and right of the First Division, and was engaged until 3 p.m., when a part was moved to the right, to relieve the Second Brigade, their ammunition being exhausted. Both flanks of the corps in the meantime having been turned by the enemy, this brigade retired, with the residue of the division, under a very destructive fire, along the railroad embankment and through the town to the cemetery, where the division was reformed about 5 p.m.  Here, as before stated, I assumed command.

Later in the evening, moved toward the left, and took position on the left of the Eleventh Corps, and, having built breastworks of such materials as were at hand, remained there in support of the batteries at that point until relieved by the Third Division, Second Corps, about noon next day.

About 7 o'clock in the evening were moved farther to the left, to support the operations of the Third Corps, in which we were subjected to a considerable artillery fire, with some loss, which duty being accomplished, we returned.

About 10 p.m. were placed in position on the Emmitsburg and Gettysburg road and in front of the cemetery, to support a portion of the Eleventh Corps, from which duty we were relieved at day-light on the 3d.

About 2 p.m. of the 3d, the artillery fire becoming heavy and general along the line, the brigade was moved quickly to the right, to the support of Captain Ricketts' and other batteries operating on the right of the cemetery.  Here we remained about an hour, and were exposed to both the front and rear fire of artillery and the enemy's skirmishers.  When about to move on return to the left, I was wounded and temporarily disabled, and the command was transferred to Colonel Lyle, of the Ninetieth Pennsylvania Volunteer Regiment.  I remained with the brigade, however, and soon after resumed the command.

About 3 p.m. moved rapidly to the left, under a severe fire, to the support of the Second Corps, upon which the enemy appeared to have concentrated their attack, and took position in support of a battery on the right of the Third Division, Second Corps.  Brisk skirmishing was kept up with considerable loss on both sides until 9 p.m.  About 11 p.m., it being ascertained that the enemy were removing the fences within reach, either for the purpose of making defense against attack or of opening the way, the breastworks in our front were much strengthened by the addition of stone and timber, the brigade working almost the entire night. 

No change was made on the 4th.  The skirmishing was continued with some loss.

The following table gives the loss each day:

Killed Wounded Missing Total Aggregate
Date officers enlisted men officers enlisted men officers enlisted men officers enlisted men
July 1 1 35 35 68 39 598 75 701 776
July 2 5 1 9 1 12 2 26 28
July 3 1 7 4 2 7 7 14
July 4 1 2 3 3
Total* 1 42 43 83 40 612 84 737 821

This table does not include the loss of the Eleventh Pennsylvania Volunteers on the 1st instant, it being then attached to the Second Brigade, and its loss being accounted for with that brigade.  Many reported missing, it has been since ascertained, were killed or wounded.  Some were recovered on re-entering the town, and the residue are in the hands of the enemy.

The conduct of officers and men, so far as they came under my observation, was in every way creditable.

Three officers of General Paul's staff being reported among the missing I selected Adjt. A.R. Small, 16th Maine, as acting assistant adjutant-general, and Lieutenant Howe, of the 13th Massachusetts, as aide-de-camp, of whom I desire to make special mention for assistance rendered me.

This report is made under unfavorable circumstances, away from the brigade, and without means of obtaining full information, which facts will account for any deficiencies.

I have the honor to remain, your obedient servant,

R. COULTER,      
Colonel, Commanding Brigade.

Lieut. S.M. Morgan,
            Acting Assistant Adjutant-General, Second Division.


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Report of Maj.-General John Newton, First Corps Commander

Reports of Maj. Gen. John Newton, U. S. Army, commanding First Army Corps.,

HEADQUARTERS FIRST ARMY CORPS,
September 30, 1863.

        General:  I have the honor to submit the following report of the operations of this corps at the battle of Gettysburg and subsequently, until its arrival at Warrenton Junction:

Major-General John Newton

July 1.--The operations of this day are fully set forth in Maj. Gen. Abner Doubleday's report, who commanded the corps in the bloody and important battle which inaugurated the three days' fighting at Gettysburg.

July 2.--In obedience to an order from Headquarters Army of the Potomac, dated July 1, I reported in person to the general commanding, at the cemetery gate, early in the morning of this day, and assumed command of the First Corps. I found the First Division (Brigadier-General Wadsworth) occupying the high wooded hill and slopes immediately on the right of General Howard's position on Cemetery Hill, an important position, from which it was not detached during the subsequent operations at Gettysburg. Major-General Doubleday's (Third) division was in reserve behind the Eleventh Corps on Cemetery Hill. Brigadier-General Robinson's (Second) division was likewise posted on the Cemetery Hill, but on the left of the Eleventh Corps, and facing to the left in the position afterward occupied by the Second Corps. The artillery of the corps, except one battery with the First Division, was posted on Cemetery Hill, and was not detached from this position during all the subsequent fighting. Beyond an occasional shot at the moving columns of the enemy, everything remained quiet until the afternoon, when the enemy opened a brisk cannonade on my position, which was vigorously and effectively returned.

Near sundown I was summoned to move my troops in haste to fill a gap in the line on the left of the Second Corps, into which the enemy was on the point of entering. Notwithstanding the inconvenient positions of the Second and Third Divisions, these were quickly filed into the new position in time to stay the progress of the enemy, who relinquished their attempt on our appearance. I was deeply gratified at the promptitude with which these divisions moved at this critical period, their movement not consuming one-half the time it would have taken on drill. During this movement, the right wing of the Thirteenth Vermont, under Colonel Randall, charged upon the enemy, retook four of our guns, and captured two guns and 80 prisoners from them. Two more of our guns were retaken by the Second Brigade, Third Division.

Night coming on, and active operations closing here for the day, parties were sent to the front to bring in such guns as had been left. They were successful to some extent, but the number thus reclaimed has never been reported. The Second Division was sent back to Cemetery Hill, to support the Eleventh Corps, which was threatened by the enemy. The First Division was vigorously attacked about sundown by the enemy, who were handsomely repulsed. One brigade of the Twelfth Corps, on their right, participated in this action. The position of the Eleventh Corps was attacked about the same time, the enemy succeeding in some instances in getting into the batteries, from which they were driven by the cannoneers themselves.

July 3.--The dawn of day found the position of the First Corps as follows: The First Division as before reported; the Second Division on Cemetery Hill, ready to support the Eleventh Corps or the Second Corps; the Third Division on the left center and adjoining the left of General Hancock's position. Between the left of the Third Division and General Sykes' position on the left (an interval by my estimate of over half a mile), there were no troops in position. I reported this fact immediately to the general commanding, who authorized me to go to General Sedgwick, on the extreme left, and obtain troops from him to fill this gap. While proceeding on this mission, I encountered Caldwell's division, of the Second Corps, not then forming part of General Hancock's line of battle, and with this officer's consent I put it in position on the left of the Third Division, First Corps. General Sedgwick could only spare me the First New Jersey brigade (General Torbert), which was placed in position on the left of General Caldwell. My own batteries, occupying important positions in the center and right center, might not with propriety be removed, and I therefore applied and obtained permission to call upon the Artillery Reserve for batteries.

By about 12 o'clock I considered my line between the left of General Hancock's and the right of General Sykes as very secure, having in position the infantry above mentioned, batteries from the Artillery Reserve, from the Third Corps, and one battery from the Sixth Corps.

I must mention that the Third Corps, under Major-General Birney, which had suffered severely in the previous day's fight, I found posted directly in rear of my line of battle, and I made arrangements with General Birney to draw upon him for such support as might be needed; and I take advantage of this opportunity to express my obligations for the cheerful and handsome manner in which he responded to every call made upon him.

Near 1 p.m. the enemy opened with about one hundred and twenty guns upon the position of the army, and kept up an incessant fire for a long period. This was intended to demoralize our troops and to cover the onset of their assaulting columns. They failed in their first object, our troops sustaining this terrific fire with admirable equanimity. At length their columns of attack began to move; one heavy column, a division, by General Stannard's report, marching by battalion front, directed itself upon the front of the Third (Doubleday's) Division, First Corps, but meeting with a warm fire from his front line of battle, composed of the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Sixteenth Vermont Regiments, the Twentieth New York State Militia, and the One hundred and fifty-first Pennsylvania Volunteers, swerved to the right to attack General Hancock. General Stannard immediately changed front forward, and, falling upon their flank, routed them, taking a large number of prisoners. This had hardly been done, when another column, attempting the left of General Doubleday's front, was attacked in flank in a similar way and nearly the whole column killed, wounded, or captured. For these brilliant episodes of the battle, I respectfully call the attention of the general commanding to the reports of Major-General Doubleday and Brigadier-General Stannard.

I wish to call particular attention to the conduct of the regiments above mentioned, and to the skillful manner in which they were handled on this day, as being greatly instrumental in overthrowing the enemy's grand attack and in gaining for us a glorious victory. Brigadier-General Stannard, who was wounded the day before, refused to quit the field, and highly distinguished himself by his coolness and skill. Major-General Doubleday narrowly escaped with his life, having suffered a severe contusion from a fragment of a shell.

Colonel Wainwright, the chief of artillery of the corps; Captain Stevens, Fifth Maine Battery; Captain Reynolds, Battery L, First New York Artillery; Captain Cooper, Battery B, First Pennsylvania; Captain Hall, Second Maine Battery, and Lieutenant Stewart, Battery B, Fourth U.S. Artillery, all displayed the greatest gallantry throughout the engagements of the three days.

Surg. J. Theodore Heard, medical director, and Surg. T. H. Bache, medical inspector, remained in the town of Gettysburg during its occupation by the enemy, and deserve the highest praise for their zealous and unremitting attention to the wounded.

July 4, the troops maintained the same position. The day was devoted to collecting and caring for the wounded.

On the 5th, the corps was concentrated, and attention was also given to the collecting of arms, the burial of the dead, and the care of the wounded.

On the 6th, the corps marched to Emmitsburg.

On the 7th, marched to Hamburg.

On the 8th, marched to Turner's Gap, where it took up position against a threatened attack of the enemy.

On the 10th, it took position beyond Beaver Creek.

On the 12th, it marched to Funkstown heights, and was posted in line of battle in presence of the enemy.

On the 14th, it marched to Williamsport. On the 15th, to near Crampton's Pass. On the 16th, to near Berlin.

On the 18th, it crossed the Potomac, and marched thence to Waterford, Va.

On the 19th, to Hamilton. On the 20th, to Middleburg. On the 22d, to White Plains On the 23d, to Warrenton.

On the 25th, to Warrenton Junction.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JOHN NEWTON,        
Major-General, Commanding.
Brig.Gen. S. Williams,  Asst Adjutant-General.   



HDQRS. FIRST ARMY CORPS, October 3, 1863.


Brig. Gen. S. WILLIAMS,
Assistant Adjutant-General.

        The number of rebel dead buried by this corps at Gettysburg, as reported by divisions, is 7 officers and 404 men.

JOHN NEWTON,        
Major-General, Commanding.
Brig.Gen. S. Williams,  Asst Adjutant-General.   

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Colonel Gilbert Prey, 104th New York Infantry

For the rest of the brigade regiments, I have put the 104th New York Report first as they co-ordinated their attacks on July 1 with the 13th Mass, and the two reports compliment each other nicely.  Colonel Prey was one of the few commanding officers in the brigade, neither captured nor wounded, so he was able to write a concise report of the July first fighting.

Hdqrs. 104th Regiment New York Volunteers,
                                                                                   August 18, 1863.

Captain:   In accordance with circular from headquarters Army of the Potomac, August 12, 1863, I have the honor to report that on the 28th of June last the One hundred and fourth Regiment New York Volunteers marched from Middletown, Md., to Frederick City, Md.; bivouacked for the night.  On the 29th, marched to Emmitsburg, Md.; bivouacked for the night about 1 mile west of the town.  On the morning of the 30th, marched across the state line into Pennsylvania, north of Emmitsburg; bivouacked until next morning, when we resumed the march to Gettysburg, where we arrived about 1 o’clock.

Colonel Gilbert Prey, 94th NY      When the brigade was first formed in line of battle, my regiment was placed on the right center, and ordered to throw up a breastwork of such material as they could find.  In a few minutes the order was countermanded, and we marched by the right flank in rear of the Thirteenth Massachusetts Regiment across the railroad embankment, passing through a piece of woods some distance into an open field.  I was ordered to form line by Brigadier-General Paul on the right of the Thirteenth Massachusetts Regiment, and, while doing so, was ordered by Brigadier-General Robinson, commanding division, to form on the left, and did so, my left resting near the Ninety-seventh Regiment (New York), my line running obliquely with the crest of the hill, where the enemy was strongly posted behind a stone wall covered with thick underbrush, the fire from the wall taking us on the flank as the line advanced.  I ordered my three left companies to gain the wall and dislodge the enemy, which they did in gallant style.  The enemy retired in confusion before them.  I then advanced my line to the road on which the enemy had been posted. Here some 35 or 40 prisoners were taken, but having neither officers nor men to spare to take charge of them, I directed them to pass to the rear and join some already taken by the Thirteenth Massachusetts, which they did.  Fifteen or 20 more prisoners were afterward taken by my regiment and sent to the rear. Shortly after gaining the road, the enemy began to move to our left in considerable force, and, as that was entirely unsupported, I caused my regiment to change front and take position behind the stone wall from which we had previously driven the enemy.

As they still continued to advance on our front and right flank, I moved to the left, to connect with the Ninety-seventh New York. There we remained, firing, and held our position until ordered to retire.  A list of the casualties has already been forwarded.

We retired, and formed line behind a stone wall some 300 or 400 yards to the left of the cemetery, nearly parallel to the pike leading to Emmitsburg; remained there until the next morning, when we were moved to the right, to support a battery on Cemetery Hill.  Remained there until about sundown of that day (July 2), when we were marched to the left, where the battle was raging at the time; formed line in rear of a portion of the Second Corps. When the battle closed, we were again marched to the right, and formed in line behind a stone wall on the west of the cemetery, and nearly down to the town; lay on our arms during the night.  The next morning (July 3), we marched, under the fire of the enemy’s sharpshooters, to the rear of the cemetery, to support a battery, as on the day before. About 2 o’clock of that day we were marched to the right of the cemetery, to screen us from the shot and shell that were playing into the place where we were; lay there about two hours, when we were marched, through a galling fire of shot, shell, and bullets, across the cemetery and to the left, and formed line in front of a brass battery in the woods immediately to the left of the cemetery. Sent out skirmishers.  Continued in that position and capacity until about noon of the 5th, when we were marched to the left, and bivouacked near Round Top Mountain, so called. The next day (July 6) we marched to the State line near Emmitsburg; from thence (July 7) over the mountain to near Middletown bivouacked for the night, and next morning (July 8) passed through Middletown and bivouacked about 1 mile out toward South Mountain. Toward night marched to the western slope of the South Mountain, near and to the north of Turner’s Gap, formed line, and were ordered to throw up a breastwork of stones, of which there was an abundance.  Remained there until the 10th, and then marched on the pike toward Hagerstown, through Boonsborough, to within 3 miles of Funkstown, and filed to the right some three-fourths of a mile from the pike, and formed line nearly parallel to the pike, and were ordered to throw up breastworks, which we did, and remained there until the 12th of July; then marched to Funkstown, formed line nearly parallel with Antietam Creek; was ordered to throw up breastworks.  Remained there until the 14th of July; thence to near Williamsport; bivouacked over night.  The next morning (July 15) marched to near Crampton’s Gap; bivouacked on the west side of the mountain. Thence (July 16) to Berlin; remained there until July 18, when we marched to Waterford, Va.  Thence (July 19) to Hamilton. Thence to Middleburg July 20; remained there until July 22, when we marched to White Plains, arriving there at daylight July 23.  Thence the same day to Warrenton.

GILBERT G. PREY,      
Colonel One hundred and fourth New York Volunteers.

Capt Byron Porter,
                 Assistant Adjutant-General.

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Lt. Colonel Augustus B. Farnham, 16th Maine Infantry

The Photograph, is attributed to Augustus B. Farnham, 2d Maine, from Wikimedia Commons.  He was later with the 16th Maine.

Headquarters Sixteenth Maine Volunteers,
                                                                     August 19, 1863.

Report of the part taken by the Sixteenth Maine Volunteers in the recent operations of the army, from June 28 to July 24, 1863.

Lieutenant Colonel Augustus B. Farnham

June 28, 1863. – On picket 5 miles to the north of Middletown, Md.  At 3 p.m. received orders to be ready for a move, and at 4 p.m. the regiment moved by the old road over the mountains to Frederick City, arriving there at 3 a.m. on the morning of the 29th.  Resumed our line of march at 5 a.m., and marched a distance of 26 miles, passing through Emmitsburg at 6 p.m., and camped near the town.  Distance marched from 4 p.m. June 28 till 6 p.m. June 29, 40 miles.

June 30. – Marched at 8 a.m., and, after proceeding about 4 miles, crossed the Pennsylvania line, and camped for the night.

July 1. – Marched at 6 a.m.  After proceeding a short distance, heard cannonading to the front.  After reaching the battle-ground, we were ordered with the rest of the brigade forward toward the right and in rear of a large house and ridge, where we halted for a few moments.  We were then ordered, with the Ninety-fourth New York Volunteers, to the left and front, and threw up a barricade of rails, &c.  In fifteen minutes we were ordered to the right, to engage the enemy at the top of the ridge, and which being done we changed front, our right resting on the top of the ridge and running parallel with the fence and woods and in front of our original lines.  Here we engaged the enemy, and drove him from his position, after which we were ordered to the rear in the woods, where we lay skirmishing with the enemy a few moments.  We were then ordered, alone, by General Robinson, to take possession of a hill which commanded the road, and hold the same as long as there was a man left.  We took the position as ordered, and held the same until, finding the enemy in such force, and rapidly advancing on us, and seeing no support coming to our aid, we fell back into the hollow, and formed again, but could not hold our position, and finally fell back into the woods, where we engaged the enemy until, finding that we were again left without support, and the enemy engaging us both front and flank, ordered a retreat, but not in time to reach the main body of the brigade.

Our loss in killed, wounded, and missing for the day was:  Officers killed, 1; enlisted men killed, 8; officers wounded, 5; enlisted men wounded, 47; officers missing, 11; enlisted men missing, 151; total, 223.

July 2. – Supported a battery on Cemetery Hill until nearly dark, when we were ordered to the left, and ran the gauntlet of a very heavy artillery fire, reaching the point of attack just as the enemy were being driven back.  We returned to our position on the right, and about 9 p.m. moved on the hill in front of the batteries and near the town, where we were much annoyed by the enemy’s sharpshooters firing from the windows and houses.

July 3. – Soon after daylight we were ordered to the rear of the batteries.  As we rode up from behind the stone wall, we received a volley from the enemy’s pickets, but fortunately did us no damage.  We held a position in support of a battery until the enemy making a desperate attack on the center, our division was sent to re-enforce the Second Corps.  Reached the point of attack as the enemy were being driven back broken and defeated.  We relieved the Second Corps, built breastworks on the edge of the woods, and, after sending out a strong picket, bivouacked for the night.

July 4.  – Our pickets skirmished with the enemy’s during the day.

July 5. – The regiment was relieved at 12 m., and moved to the left and rear, and bivouacked in a small piece of woods for the night.

Our loss in killed and wounded during the 2d, 3d, 4th, and 5th, was as follows:  Officers killed, none; enlisted men killed, none; officers wounded, 1; enlisted men wounded, 3; total, 4.

July 6. – Moved at 7 a.m. and camped near Emmitsburg.  Length of march, 8 miles.

July 7. – Marched through Emmitsburg, Mechanicstown, over the Catoctin Mountains, and camped on the western slope, 4 miles north of Middletown.  Length of march, 25 miles.

July 8. – Marched at daylight in a heavy rain.  Passed through Middletown, and halted 1 mile west of the town at 11 a.m.  Marched again at 4 p.m., and bivouacked on the western slope of South Mountain.

July 9. – Remained in line of battle on South Mountain.

July 10. – Marched at 5 a.m. through Boonsborough, and halted 3 miles west of the town and threw up breastworks.  Moved about 80 rods to the rear, and threw up more breastworks at right angles with the first, the former running north and south. Length of march, 7 miles.

July 11. – Remained in line near Beaver Creek till 3 p.m., when we went on picket.

July 12. – Were called in at 10 a.m.  Moved through Funkstown, and formed a line of battle on north side of Antietam Creek, facing Hagerstown, at 4 p.m.  Remained in line two hours, and then moved by the left flank about 40 rods, and formed on the left by file into line; then by the left flank about 30 rods, and built breastworks; then bivouacked for the night.

July 13 – Remained in line; some skirmishing  in front.

July 14. – Moved at 1 o’clock toward Williamsport, and camped 1 mile this side of the town.

July 15. – Marched at 5.30 a.m., and passed through Smoketown, Keedysville, and Knoxville, and camped at the base of the Catoctin Mountain, on the west side, near Crampton’s Gap pass Burkittsville, and camped near Berlin.

July 17. – Remained in Camp.

July 18. – Marched at 6 a.m. and crossed the Potomac at Berlin.  Passed east of Lovettsville, and bivouacked near Waterford.  Length of march, 10 miles.

July 19. – Marched at 6 a.m. through Waterford, by Harmony Church, through Hamilton, and camped half a mile west of the town.  Length of march, 6 miles.

July 20. – Marched to Middleburg; distance, 15 miles.

July 21. – Remained in camp.

July 22. – Marched at 7 p.m. toward White Plains.  Until about 11 p.m. the marching was very slow and tedious, being in the rear of the train.  At 12 o’clock men still on the march.

July 23. – Marched until 4 a.m., and bivouacked at White Plains.  At 7 a.m. marched toward Warrenton.  Reached Warrenton at 5 p.m., and formed a line of battle on the southwest side of the town.  Bivouacked for the night.

A.B. FARNHAM,         
Lieutenant-Colonel, Commanding Sixteenth Maine Volunteers.

Capt Byron Porter,
                 Assistant Adjutant-General.



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Major Samuel A. Moffet, 94th New York Infantry

The following biographical notes for Major Samuel Moffet are lifted from the website, 'Antietam on the Web' maintained by Brian Downey & Contributors.

Maj. Tomlinson resigned April 13, 1863, and was succeeded as Major by Capt. Moffett. Under his command the Ninety-fourth participated in the Chancellorsville campaign.

Late in 1863 most of the regiment re-enlisted for the war and went home on furlough, and the Ninety-fourth became the Ninety-fourth Veterans. Major Moffett was promoted lieutenant colonel, December 16, 1863, to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Lieutenant Colonel Kress.

Rappahannock Station, Va.,        
August 20, 1863.

Captain:  I beg leave respectfully to submit the following report of the part taken by the Ninety-fourth Regiment New York Volunteers, commanded by Col. A.R. Root, from June 28 until its arrival at Warrenton on July 23, 1863:

On the afternoon of June 28, we marched 7 miles, to near Frederick City.  On the 29th, we marched a little beyond Emmitsburg, near which place the Ninety-fourth picketed during the night.  The next morning marched about 3 miles out of the village, where we remained during the day.

July 1, marched to near Gettysburg, and, after moving forward to near the brick seminary, we were ordered to throw up breastworks.  After remaining here a short time, we were ordered forward.  We advanced through the woods to a fence, beyond which was the enemy.  After dislodging and driving them from their position, we commenced to charge across the field, but after proceeding a part of the way were met by a large opposing force, and at the same time became aware of their advance on our left flank, threatening to cut off our retreat.  We immediately fell back in good order to the woods.  At this period, Colonel Root being wounded, the command of the regiment devolved upon me.  We remained in the woods about half an hour, slightly changing our position several times.  I was then ordered By General Robinson to take my command to the crest of the hill near by, which I immediately did.  I remained in this position until we fell back to the hill on the south side of the town, losing heavily in wounded and prisoners.

The report of this day is necessarily meager, as Colonel Root, who had command of the regiment during the hottest of the engagement, is absent a prisoner, and, no doubt, is possessed of much valuable information concerning the battle which I had not the means of ascertaining.  We remained in the vicinity of Cemetery Hill during July 2 and 3, occasionally changing our position in obedience to orders.  We were constantly under fire, either from the batteries of the enemy or from their sharpshooters, but fortunately, no one was killed and but few were wounded.  Late in the afternoon of the 3d, in the midst of a heavy fire, we moved a short distance to the left of the hill, where we immediately threw up breastworks.  Our skirmishers, which were at once sent forward, remained out during the night and the day following.

On the morning of the 5th, we marched to the left about 1 mile, and here remained during the day and night.

The next morning we commenced a march which was continued during the two following days, passing on our way the villages of Emmitsburg and Middletown.  On the 8th, we halted on the western slope of South Mountain Range, and immediately threw up breast-works.  Here we remained until the 10th, when we moved forward to near Little Beavertown, on Beaver Creek, and again threw up intrenchments.  At this place the Ninety-fourth New York was ordered out on picket duty, which we performed until the following day.  On the morning of the 12th, we again moved forward, and marched to near Hagerstown, where we immediately proceeded to intrench ourselves in close proximity to the intrenchments of the enemy.  Our skirmishers were engaged during the night and the next day, but no casualties occurred.  Early on the morning of the 14th, it was discovered that the skirmishers of the enemy had been withdrawn, and that their line of intrenchments had been abandoned.  Soon after, we received orders to advance, which we did without opposition, arriving near Williamsport late in the afternoon of the same day, and learning that the entire force of the enemy had recrossed the river.

The next day, in compliance with orders, we faced about and marched toward Berlin, which place we reached about noon, July 16.  Here we encamped until the morning of the  18th, when we crossed the Potomac River, marching in a southerly direction.  Continuing our march, we passed the villages of Waterford, Middleburg, and White Plains, and reached Warrenton on the 23d day of July, 1863.

S.A. MOFFETT,        
Major, Commanding Ninety-fourth Regiment.

Capt Byron Porter,
                 Assistant Adjutant-General.


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Reports of the 107th Pennsylvania

Lieutenant-Colonel James MacThomson, 107th Pennsylvania Infantry

The following biography of Colonel MacThomson is lifted from the website, 'Antietam on the Web' maintained by Brian Downey & Contributors.  The photographic image is from MASS MOLLUS Collection at the Army Heritage Education Center in Carlisle, PA.

In January 1863, Major Forney died and Captain MacThompson was commissioned to succeed him. Subsequently, Lieutenant Colonel McAllen, on account of his feeble state of health, resigned, and was succeeded by Major MacThompson as Lt. Colonel.

Colonel McCoy was again absent with illness after Chancellorsville, and MacThomson had command on the Gettysburg Campaign. He left the field after the second day's fighting there (July 2) "prostrated by severe duty".

He was honorably mustered out 13 July 1865.


References, Sources, and other notes:
Source: Bates, Samuel P., History of the Pennsylvania Volunteers, 1861-65, Harrisburg, 1868-1871.; Extracted online at the Pennsylvania in the Civil War site; and
Heitman, Francis Historical Register and Dictionary of the United States Army 1789-1903, Washington, US Government Printing Office, 1903.

Headquarters 107th Pennsylvania Volunteers,          
July 10, 1863.

Lieutenant:  I have the honor to submit the following necessarily short report of the part the regiment under my command took in the engagement of July 1:

Lieutenant Colonel J. M. Thomson, 107th PA Inf.

Went into the fight at about 1 p.m., with 230 guns and 25 commissioned officers, the men loading as they walked. Were in action about two hours.  Captured more prisoners than the regiment numbered.  I regret to report the loss of large numbers of most excellent soldiers.

The casualties are, as far as ascertained, as follows:  Field officers, lieutenant-colonel slightly, major severely, wounded; 3 commissioned officers known to be wounded, and 6 commissioned officers missing; 11 enlisted men known to be killed, 48 known to be wounded, and 93 missing.

Men could not have fought better than these men, and I am gratified to say that not a single exhibition of cowardice of either officers or men was observed during the whole engagement.

Respectfully submitted.

       With much respect, I am, lieutenant, your most obedient servant,
                                                            JAMES MacTHOMSON,
        Lieutenant-Colonel, Comdg. 107th Pennsylvania Volunteers.

Lieutenant Small,
           A.A.A.G., First Brig., Second Div., First Army Corps.



Captain Emanuel D. Roath, 107th Pennsylvania Infantry

The photograph is attributed to be Emanuel D. Roath.

Rappahannock, Va.,      
August 15, 1863.

Captain:  I have the honor to submit the following report, as per orders from brigade headquarters, from June 28 to July  22, inclusive, viz:

Supposed Portrait of Emanuel D. Roath

June 28. – Left camp near Middletown, Md., and marched to Frederick City, Md.

June 29. – We marched from Frederick City to Emmitsburg, passing on the way through Lewiston, Mechanicstown, and Catoctin Furnace settlement; also passing those famous Catholic institutions of learning, viz, the college and sisterhood near Emmitsburg.  Having marched all day in rain and mud, reaching our destination of 23 miles at 5.30 p.m., the men were much fatigued on the march, but all answered and were accounted for at roll-call.  We bivouacked 3 miles north of Emmitsburg for the remainder of the day and night on Pennsylvania soil.

The following is the report of Lieut. Col. J. MacThomson, of the One hundred and seventh Pennsylvania Volunteers, during the action of July 1, at Gettysburg, he being in command up to that time, Viz:*

July 1. -- After the engagement, we fell back to the left of Cemetery Hill, and threw up strong breastworks, which we occupied until next morning.

July 2. – During the forenoon we were relieved by the Third Division, Second Corps, and taken a few hundred yards in the rear to support a battery.  We lay on our arms until about 6.30 p.m., when we were marched to the left, toward the Round Top, under a heavy and effective fire, to assist in driving the rebel hordes back in the famous charge of the second day of the fight.  After the charge, we marched back to near the cemetery, and were ordered to lay in rear of a stone fence, being a protection for the men from the enemy’s sharpshooters in our front.

Our casualties during the second day were 1 commissioned officer and several men wounded.  Our strength was about 78 guns and 12 commissioned officers.

July 3. – At 4.30 we were posted in the rear of Cemetery Hill, in support of the batteries stationed on that point, remaining in that position until 1.30 p.m., when the enemy  opened upon us with a heavy and furious artillery fire.  Our division was moved to the right of Cemetery Hill, at the same time lying under two direct fires of the enemy’s sharpshooters, and one battery.  The strife became terrific and the artillery firing terrible. At this crisis our services were required to support the batteries, when the regiment was marched with others along the crest or brow of the hill in rear of the batteries, through the most deadly fire ever man passed through, it appearing as though every portion of the atmosphere contained a deadly missile.

After our services were no longer needed to support the batteries, the division to which my regiment was attached was moved to the left of Cemetery Hill, to participate in crowning our arms with the glorious victory achieved that day.

My strength was about 72 guns and 11 commissioned officers. Casualties, 2 commissioned officers wounded; 1 private killed and several slightly wounded.  The day being very hot, 3 of my men were carried insensible from the field on account of the intense heat.  After resting a few hours, we sent out a line of skirmishers to the front, and threw up breastworks to protect the men in our position, where we remained for the night.

July 4.  – We lay all day in the position of the previous night and strengthened it; did some skirmishing with the enemy’s sharpshooters; had no casualties.

It is proper here for me to state that the officers and men displayed great gallantry and determination throughout all the engagements of the previous days, and are entitled to the praise and gratitude of a free and loyal people.

July 5. – After the skirmish line was relieved, we fell back some distance, and encamped for the night.

July 6. – Left camp on or near the battle-field, and marched and counter-marched a short distance; halted until 4 p.m., when we were ordered forward again some distance, and encamped about 3 miles north of Emmitsburg, on Pennsylvania soil.

July 7. – Brigade ordered into line, and took up its line of march toward Middletown, Md., passing through Franklin Mills and Mechanicstown; also crossed the Catoctin Mountains, and encamped near Beallsville, Md.

July 8. – Left camp near Beallsville, marched through the place to Middletown, and encamped a few hours south of the town in a heavy rain, it having also rained all the previous night. At 4 p.m. we again took up our line of march to South Mountain.  Bivouacked there  until the 10th, in line of preparation.  Our cavalry had quite a sharp and successful encounter with the enemy on the 9th.

July 10. – Moved forward, passing through Boonsborough and Benevola to near Beaver Creek, and intrenched; lay in that position until the12th.

July 11. – My regiment was detailed for picket, and was stationed at Beaver Creek, a fine, thriving settlement; the enemy in large numbers in the neighborhood.

July 12, Sunday. – Marched through Funkstown and bivouacked near Hagerstown, MD., throwing up strong breastworks, and remained there until the 14th.

July 14. – Left the breastworks and moved toward Williamsport, passing through and over the strong and abandoned works of the enemy, and bivouacked about 1 mile east of Williamsport for the night.  The last of the enemy had recrossed the Potomac during the day, our cavalry capturing about 700 of them on their retreat and destroying a great portion of their train.

July 15.– Took up the line of march toward Berlin, passing through Jones’ Cross-Roads, Smoketown, Marsh, Keedysville, Locust Street, and Rohrersville, and bivouacked for the night near Crampton’s Gap.

July 16. – Marched through the gap (while passing through the gap from the most elevated position we had a fine view of Pleasant Valley, Md., and it was a grand scene, for nature had just clothed it in the richest garb to welcome, as it were, the loyal and victorious army of the Union), leaving Burkittsville to our left, which is a fine pleasant town, and bivouacked about 3 miles from Berlin, and remained there until the 18th.

July 18. – Marched to Berlin, crossed the Potomac into Loudoun County, Va., leaving Lovettsville to our right, and encamped near Waterford.

July 19. – Marched through Waterford to Hamilton, and bivouacked in a fine woods (Sunday).

July 20. – Marched to Middleburg, and lay encamped near the town along the Aldie pike until 6 p.m. of the 21st.  Marched to White Plains during the night, arriving there at 4 a.m. on the morning of the 22d.  After a few hours’ rest and breakfast, we moved to Warrenton same day. Had no casualties during the march.

Respectfully submitted.

I am, captain, with much respect, your most obedient servant,
E.D. ROATH,        
Captain, Comdg. One hundred and seventh Pa. Vols.

Capt Byron Porter,
                 Assistant Adjutant-General.


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Captain Jacob J. Bierer, 11th Pennsylvania Infantry

The 11th Pennsylvania was only temporarily assigned to the 1st Brigade.  Their fight on July 1st was with General Henry Baxter's 2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, First Corps.

Hdqrs. Eleventh Pennsylvania Vol. Regiment,      
August 22, 1863.

Sir:  In reply to circular from Headquarters Army of the Potomac, August 12, 1863, I respectfully make the following report:

About 2 p.m. June 28, the regiment marched from Middletown, Md., to the left of Frederick City, and encamped about 2 miles from said city.

June 29. – Early we left camp and marched through Mechanicstown, and encamped near Emmitsburg, Md.

June 30. – Marched through Emmitsburg on the Gettysburg road, and encamped 2 miles east of town and about one-fourth of a mile north of the Maryland and Pennsylvania line;  there mustered for pay.

July 1. – The regiment marched to Gettysburg and were engaged with the enemy, Colonel Coulter being in command, whose report has already been made.

July 2. – The regiment, on the evening of July 1, having taken position in rear of breastworks on the south side of the town, was early this morning relieved by troops of the Second Corps, and marched about one-fourth of a mile to Cemetery Hill, in rear of which, with the division, it was formed to support a battery stationed on the hill.  It remained here until 8 p.m., when it was marched to the left.

At 9.30 p.m. it resumed its former position, and was subsequently formed in rear of a stone wall between the hill and town, along the road, where it remained until the morning of the 3d, at daylight, when it was moved to the position it formerly occupied in the rear of the cemetery.  It remained until noon, when it was moved to the right.

About 2 p.m., the enemy commenced shelling so heavily as to make it necessary to move to the north side of the hill, where it remained about an hour, when it was marched across the cemetery to the right of the position occupied on the 2d, where it was formed in line, and remained during the balance of the day and until the 5th.

July 5. – Early in the morning the regiment, together with the brigade, was withdrawn from the rifle-pits and moved to the left, where we remained during the day and night.

July 6. – Early in the morning we left this position and moved to the State line of Pennsylvania, in Adams County, a distance of 6 miles, toward Emmitsburg, Md., and was there detailed for picket duty.

July 7. – At 3 a.m. the pickets were called in and the regiment rejoined the brigade; marched through Emmitsburg and Mechanicstown, and encamped in the evening on a range of the South Mountain, about 5 miles from Middletown, Md.

July 8. – Started at daylight and marched through Middletown, Md., and bivouacked on the north side of South Mountain, and remained there during the night and next day, having thrown up intrenchments.

July 10. – At 8 a.m. moved from this position, marching through Boonsborough.  Was halted at Beaver Creek, and threw up breastworks, expecting to be attacked by the enemy, and lay in this position during Saturday, the 11th.

July 12, Sunday. – At 12 m. left encampment; moved to Funkstown, crossing Antietam Creek; formed line of battle, and intrenched in the evening, having marched about 7 miles.

July 13. – Remained in the intrenchments thrown up on the previous day.

July 14. – The enemy having left our front, marched to within 1 miles of Williamsport.

July 15, -- Marched through Keedysville, Md., and Petersville, and encamped at the foot of South Mountain.

July 16. – At 5.30 a.m. marched across South Mountain, passing through Burkittsville, and encamped near Berlin early in the day, and remained there during the day and night and next day until the morning of the 18th.

July 18. – Passed through Berlin, and, crossing the river on pontoon bridge, marched to Waterford.  On this day the regiment, temporarily assigned to the First Brigade, was, in accordance with new orders from headquarters Second Division, of July 18, transferred to the Second Brigade.

July  19. – At 8 a.m. left Waterford and marched to Hamilton.

July 20. – Crossing Goose Creek; came to Middleburg, where we encamped, and remained on the 20th and 21st.

July 22. – Left camp at 6 p.m., and, marching through the night, arrived at White Plains at 3 o’clock in the morning.

July 23. – Left camp at 8 a.m. and marched toward Warrenton, Va., where we arrived at 3 p.m.

I have the honor to be, yours, respectfully,

J.J. BIERER,        
Captain, Comdg. 11th Pennsylvania Volunteers

Lieutenant J. Smith,
Acting Assistant Adjutant-General.


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Page Updated March 17, 2017.

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