This picture of Fort Independence
circa 1855 is from the Boston Public
Library, Print Department.
The following information comes from "Three Years in the Army
Charles E. Davis Jr., Boston; Estes & Lauriat;
Table of Contents
Top of Page
The information on
this page for the most part, is
transcribed from the official history of the 13th Regiment, "Three Years in the Army,"
by Charles E. Davis, jr., Boston, Estes & Lauriat, 1894.
Additional information regarding the Natick and Westboro
Rifle Companies was found in two books,
History of Middlesex County" by Duane Hamilton Hurd,
Philadelphia, J.W. Lewis & Co. 1890, and "The History of Westborough,
Massachusetts," by H.P. DeForest and E.C. Bates, Published
by the town, 1891.
The page begins
with the story of Massachusetts Governor John Andrew's struggles with
Secretary of War Simon Cameron, over the number of troops Massachusetts
would supply to the war effort, and how the regiment got the
PICTURE CREDITS: The
portrait of Colonel Leonard was shared with me by a private collector,
the uniform of the 4th Battalion was downloaded from
www.cowanauctions.com; the graphic of Fort Independence
& the photo of Nassau Hall are from the Boston Public Library
Print Division; Captain Henry Whitcomb's portrait is from the archives
of the Berlin, Massachusetts Historical Society; James Gibson &
William L. Clark are from the U.S. Army Heritage and Education Center,
Mass MOLLUS Collection, Carlisle, PA; Westboro Town Hall is from
Westborough's 250th Anniversary, 1967, Reporter Press, North Conway,
N.H.; Charles Roundy's portrait was downloaded from the internet, ,
& Moses Palmer's portrait was shared with me by a private
collector. The graphic map of Massachusetts was created by the
author; All Images have been edited in Photoshop.
They Got the Number '13.'
The information in the following essay is derrived from "The Life of John A. Andrew:
Governor of Massachusetts, 1861 - 1865," by
Henry Greenleaf Pearson, Houghton, Miflin & Company, Boston,
When President Lincoln
put out the call for Volunteers to
serve a term of 3 years rather than 3 months, upwards of 10,000 men in
into nearly 200 rifle companies.
[pictured] wrote repeatedly to Federal authorities
urging them to take advantage
of this enthusiasm and to accept at least six regiments of infantry
The attitude of the
Department at this time was
lukewarm. They did
not wish to appear
eager to bring troops to bear from one state against another. The
hoped to bring the
rebellious states back into the Union
gentle persuasion. Secretary
Simon Cameron put off Governor Andrew and refused to set a quota of
was at a
standstill. “The militia
companies pressed forward to the State authorities to be accepted as
for 3 years but the Governor could not accept them" until Washington
During this time of
uncertainty some established militia
companies such as the New England Guards and the 4th
Rifles went into camp in the forts in Boston
received notification on May 22nd
that the Massachusetts Federal quota would be 6 regiments.
Three regiments had already been promised
service. That left
Governor Andrew the
difficult task of selecting just 30 companies to form 3 new regiments
nearly 200 that were organized across the state.
In just 3 weeks the ranks were filled leaving many eager volunteers to
seek enlistments elsewhere.
Six companies left the
state and enlisted in New York Regiments; that state having a larger
fill. In all 3,000
enlisted in regiments outside of Massachusetts
before its quota was increased.
end of the three weeks,
Horace Greeley, influential Republican
editor of the New York Tribune, urged Governor Andrew to submit “his
the war to General Hiram Walbridge, “one of the most decided and
democrats” of New York, who was doing his utmost to get the government
for more troops.” Walbridge’s
had effect, and when Governor Andrew commented in a
he could offer 10 fully equipped regiments in 40 days the
yielded. On June
17, another 10
regiments was added to the
“Andrew had decided
in the designation of regiments the
numbers belonging to the militia should not be duplicated in the
the first group of
six regiments consisted of the 1st, the 2nd,
the 9th, the 10th and the
Webster Regiment (organized independently
by Fletcher Webster with assurances from friends in Washington
that his regiment would be
accepted), was the 12th.
regiments in the group of ten were numbered consecutively from 13 to 22
B, C & D; The Fourth Battalion of Rifles.
The first four companies A, B, C, and D were known
Fourth Battalion of Rifles and were raised in Boston. On the
of September, 1821, Governor John Brooks, on the petition of John S.
Tyler and others, authorized the formation of a military company in the
then town of Boston, and this company was called the Boston City Greys,
subsequently changed to the Boston City Guards, by which name it was
known at the breaking out of the war. It passed through the
various vicissitudes of military companies until the year of
1860. In the month of July of that year, a committee
of James A. Fox, W. F. Davis, D. H. Bradlee, N.S. Dearborn, and A. N.
Sampson were appointed to nominate a captain and third and fourth
lieutenants to fill vacancies caused by resignations.
At this time the company had been reduced in numbers so that it was
felt to be highly important to select a man as captain whose reputation
as an officer would invite young men to enlist under his command. The
“Boston Light Infantry (Tigers),” the “New England Guards,”
the “Boston City Guards” formed a part of the Second Massachusetts
Militia Regiment. Boston was an exception to the large cities
the country in not having a regiment of its own. The Second
Regiment, Massachusetts militia, was commanded by Col. Robert Cowdin,
and consisted of only seven companies.
H. Leonard had transferred his residence from Worcester to Boston, and
was obliged to resign his commission as brigadier general, as an
officer could not hold a commission outside the limits of the district
where he resided.
He was an officer
reputation as one of the most skilful and thorough drill-masters in the
State. He had long wanted to form a rifle battalion of which he should
have the command. At musters and parades a rifle battalion
the right of the line, except when the Boston or Salem Cadets were
present; hence the particular interest in a rifle battalion.
The committee appointed by the Boston City Guards waited on General
Leonard and offered him the captaincy of their company. He
accepted the offer upon the condition that they would agree to enlist a
second company, to be joined with the City Guards, thus forming a
battalion, and changing the arms from muskets to rifles. This
agreed to, and General Leonard petitioned the Governor and Council to
set off the City Guards from the Second Regiment for this purpose, and
authority was given him to form a rifle battalion, using that company
as a nucleus thereof. The City Guards was called Company A in
new battalion, and on the 15th of December, 1860, preceded to an
election of officers with the following result:
Immediately following this election,
privates Thomas J. Little and
Augustus N. Sampson, with fifty–one others petitioned the Governor and
Council for leave to form a new company, which was subsequently known
as Company B. As soon as a sufficient number of men had been
enlisted, an election of officers was had on March 29th 1861 with the
On the 23d of
April, Lieutenant Bradlee
adjutant of the battalion, Horace T. Rockwell was elected Fourth
Lieutenant and Messrs. Hovey and Sampson were each promoted.
While this work was going on John Kurtz and others were engaged in
recruiting a third company, which was subsequently known as Company C,
with an election of officers which occurred on the 19th of April, 1861,
Company D was
organized as follows:
In the spring of 1854 Augustine Harlow was elected
of a Boston Militia Company known as the “National Guard” which
originally began as a company of Massachusetts veterans of the Mexican
War. Captain Harlow resigned in July, 1860.
April 15, 1861, he
was requested to form
company, and he proceeded at once to do so. The free use of a room in
the Adams House was granted him by the proprietors, and in a few days
the required number of names was obtained for organization, which was
completed by the election of the following officers:
|| James H.
should be borne in mind that in raising these companies the impetus
given to enlistments by the startling events already described made it
quite easy to obtain all the men needed to complete the organizations
to the maximum number required. As a matter of fact, so many men
offered to enlist that it was decided to accept only those who were
voted in and who were willing to pay $12.50. This sum, added
money received by subscription, was expended in the purchase of
uniforms, each man being measured to ensure their fitting.
jacket was tight-fitting, with a short skirt. The shoulder-knots and
trimmings were red, and the uniform gray. The cap was gray
trimmed with scarlet and surmounted with a pompom. It made a
handsome, serviceable uniform, and gave a very effective appearance to
Pictured is an unknown soldier
dressed in the uniform of the Boston 4th Battalion of Rifles.
some time elapsed before the uniforms were finished, we were daily
drilled in citizen's clothes at the armory, then at 344 Washington
Street, but now (1893) 576. We were taken out on the streets
every day and taught to march in step, to the no small amusement of
boys who gathered about to watch our transformation from raw recruits
to soldiers. The people, however, were in earnest, and every
encouragement was offered to young men to enlist. At this
every man was looked upon as a hero who enlisted.
344 Washington Street being too small to accomodate so large a number
of men, Nassau Hall, corner of Washington and Common Streets, was
procured, and our effects transferred to that building. Here
found a commodious hall well fitted for drilling, and hours were spent
each day by squads of raw recruits in attempting to order arms in
unison. It seemed so easy a thing to do when the order was
that we were at a loss to understand why each gun should fall at a
separate moment, making a clatter like the rattle of a drum, sorely
trying the patience of our drilling masters. "Now, the next
I give an order I want you to follow my count. 'Shoulder arms !
one, two, three !' That's better."
! one, two." Then it was,
"Forward, march !
one, two, halt !"
"About face !
two; one, two." "Mark time, march
one, two; one, two, halt!"
that it took so much time in learning to do these simple things
together, yet it took days and days before we could make a creditable
appearance in public. It seemed very odd to us, that, having
acquired a reasonable degree of proficiency under one officer, we could
do nothing but bungle under the commands of another, until we realized
how rare was a drill-master who could infuse into men the precision
necessary for good soldiers. (photo
of Nassau Hall; Boston
Public Library, Print Division)
As soon as we
acquired skill enough to "order arms" together, we longed for the time
when we could march through the streets in our uniforms. With
month's continuous daily work, we naturally felt that we would make a
fine appearance as we paraded through the streets. Just prior
the war the people of Boston had an opportunity of witnessing the
wonderful skill exhibited by Ellsworth's zouaves. The
exactness and concert of their every movement was never excelled by any
body of men, and excited a spirit of emulation among officers and
soldiers in the vicinity of Boston. Some of us whose heads
easily turned by our small success began to think we had acquired a
pretty good degree of excellence in the manual of arms.
Company E, known as
the Roxbury Rifles,
was organized about the 25th of April, 1861, by the election of Dennis
Bartlett as captain, Charles R.M. Pratt as first lieutenant, and Joseph
as second lieutenant. After
organization, the company was quartered in Bacon’s Hall, Roxbury, the
obtaining their meals at a restaurant near by. From this time
on until Sunday, the 12th of
May the company was daily
drilled in citizen’s clothes. On
day the company appeared for the first time in new uniforms furnished
State, and attended divine service at the Dudley-street Baptist church,
completion of which service each man was presented with a Testament.
Drilling was continued daily without
interruption until the company joined the Fourth Battalion of Rifles,
it went to Fort Independence.
City Gazette, May 15, 1861.
Mrs. Dr. Henry Bartlett, and other ladies
her have presented to the Roxbury Rifle Company, Seventy-five flannel
shirts, one hundred and fifty pairs of stockings, and many other useful
articles. Money has been received by them in the following
amounts: Dr. Barstow, $50; Co. A. D. Hodges, $25; Theodore
Esq., $10; Arthur W. Fuller, $10; Donald Kennedy, $10. Dr.
Cotting gave Capt. Bartlett an excellent rubber coat, and Mr. Henry
White, Apothecary, gave a package of medices, for the use of the
soldiers. Various other useful articles werre received from
Cotting and Mrs. Bradford, including bed-sacks, bandages,
transcription by James
Burton; downloaded from the former website "Letters of the Civil War."]
Company F had the honor of being the oldest
company in the regiment. It was organized in 1819 as the
Rifles, and continued its organization without interruption until it
became a part of the Thirteenth Regiment. During all this
its armory was located in the town of Marlboro’.
For several years prior to 1861 it was known as Company A, First
Battalion of Rifles, the other companies being Company B from Sudbury
and company C from Natick; the latter being assigned to the Thirteenth
and known as Company H. The battalion was commanded by Major
Ephraim Moore, of Sudbury. Major Moore died March, 1861, and
succeeded by Captain Henry Whitcomb, of the Marlboro’ Rifles, who was
elected major of the battalion.
On the 25th* of
June the First
of Rifles was ordered to Fort Independence.
The Sudbury Company
officers of the
Marlboro’ Company, which became Company F, were:
*Companies F, G, H,
& K arrived at the Fort June 29th.
from the memoirs of Charles H. Roundy, Company F.
encouraged to set down his war record for posterity at a
speech given by Judge George W. Kelley of Rockland at meeting held
18th 1907 at the Grand Army Hall in Abington, Mass. His hand
written document with color illustrations, is in the
collection of the U.S. Army Heritage & Education Center in
part of the Carlisle Military History Institute. It is titled
"Reminiscences and Recollections of the Civil War 1861 - 1864
by Charles H. Roundy, Private, Company F, 13th Massachusetts
Samuel H. Leonard, Colonel."
During the winter of 1860 and the spring of
1861 I lived in Berlin, Mass. – my work was pegging childrens shoes by
hand, and 60 pairs was considered a days work.
When settlement day
came for every
dollar we had earned we received 75 cents.
I called it a
backward spring in this
respect but forward enough in other respects.
Firing on Fort Sumpter
The newspapers were filled with talk of war, all was excitement and all
business was paralyzed, so I went to Charlestown to see my mother and I
found Boston wild with excitement – seething and bubbling.
It was my
good fortune to witness the departure of the 6th and 8th
Regiments, and the excitement of those days is beyond my powers of
description, it left me with a firm determination to enlist as soon as
I could find some other than total strangers to go with
revolutionary days, Boston had witnessed no such excitement and
commotion. Companies arriving from all the depots, with bands
and colors flying – citizens joining or falling into the rear of the
companies as they passed along the streets, eager to join.
Worcester depot was a busy place, the distributing of uniforms
– the leave takings and - Good Bye’s – of fond mothers –
sweethearts – fathers – brothers and friends made a picture never to be
forgotten, and few were the lookers on but found a mist before the eyes
or a bunch in the throat.
I had tramped
the city over and over – following the Bands – eager to go.
But of all
the vast throngs I knew no one. So I went home to Berlin to see what
could be done.
A Grand War Meeting was held that night
to see if the town could raise a company for the war.
After the speaking the moderator asked,
“Now who will volunteer ?”
the first name on the muster roll was Charles H. Roundy. – others
followed – but the attempt was not a success, so a few weeks later
another scheme was devised – to have a gala day – lots of enthusiasm –
and march to our neighboring town of Northboro’ and try to raise a
company between both towns –
Again I was the
first to sign
the rolls, and was selected to command the second platoon on our march
to and from Northboro. I had no sword – but a rammer from a
One Friday evening just before supper, I was standing near the Well
Curb when a man drove up and asked for water for his horse, and while
waiting he said to me –
“Say - would you like to enlist?”
“Would I –
well, you bet I would – I’ve signed the rolls twice but it don’t
“Say – look here, young fellow, my name is Gibson – Jim Gibson. – I’m
color bearer in the Feltonville Rifles, and I can get you a chance to
go. – We are going – and we are going to morrow morning. – last
Saturday we paraded before Governor Andrew, and he promised that we
should be the first to go, so to-morrow morning we are going to Boston
and to Fort Independence.”
Now – if
you mean business you
come down to Feltonville this evening and inquire at the Armory for Jim
Gibson. (James Gibson,
pictured) I will introduce you to Captain Pope and I think
through all right – sign the Muster Roll – get your uniform say good by
to your friends and be in Fort Independence to-morrow afternoon.”
I got a man to take me to Feltonville – found Sergeant Jim Gibson – was
introduced to Captain Abel Pope, - signed the rolls – then was taken by
the Captain to the Surgeon who looked at my rosy cheeks – looked at my
teeth – and said – pass on – while at the same time he was picking a
sick looking candidate to pieces.
uniform and went back to Berlin that night – said good bye, and was
taken to Felonville next morning in my uniform, and there in the hubbub
of preparation – among almost total strangers I took my place at the
left of the company, among the short boys, as a soldier, subject to the
muster into the United States Service later on.
In the early days of April the citizens of
measures for raising a company, and by the seventeenth of that month it
was recruited to its full number. J. Parker Gould was chosen
the captaincy, which he retained until the departure of the regiment to
the seat of war, when he was appointed major in the regiment.
Eben W. Fiske was commissioned captain in his place. Although the
company was ready thus early, such was the eagerness of the people to
spring to their county’s defense, that the different companies could
not be accepted as fast as they were offered, and it was not until the
25th* of June that it was ordered into service at Fort Independence.
the time it was waiting to join some regiment the town of Stoneham
liberally contributed to its support, appropriating nearly four
thousand five hundred dollars for that purpose. A uniform was
also presented to each man at a cost of twelve dollars, and a full set
of equipments to each of the officers by the citizens.
On its departure
for Fort Independence
hundreds of citizens volunteered as escort.
*Companies F, G, H, I,
& K arrived at
the fort June 29th.
In the early part of 1859 the
young men of Natick
an independent company, with Henry Wilson, who had been
brigadier-general in the militia, as captain and instructor.
Captain Wilson’s senatorial duties calling him to Washington in
December of that year, he was succeeded by Lieut. Charles Bigelow, who
was subsequently chosen as captain. The company was regularly
drilled until the summer of 1860, when a charter was granted by the
State, where-upon it was assigned to the First Battalion of Rifles as
Company C. It attended the annual muster at Chelmsford in
September of that year, and took part in the parade of the militia, on
Boston Common, in October following, in honor of the Prince of
Wales. When the call of Governor Andrew was made in the
’61, it offered its services for three years and on the 25th* of June
went to Fort Independence with the First Battalion of Rifles.
was commanded by Perry D. Chamberlain, with Frank Z. Jenks as first
lieutenant, and William H. Brown as second lieutenant. It
Company H of the Thirteenth, with William L. Clark as captain.
*Companies F, G, H, I,
& K arrived at
the fort June 29th.
following is from "The
History of Middlesex County" by Duane Hamilton Hurd,
Philadelphia, J.W. Lewis & Co. 1890.
Beginning Of The Great Rebellion Movement.—
April 3, 1854, the town had adopted the following resolutions, reported
by its committee, John W. Bacon, chairman :
“Whereas, the bill
now before Congress for the organization of the Territories of Kansas
and Nebraska proposes to repeal so much of the Act of March 6, 1820, as
forever prohibiting slavery north of 36° 30' In the Louisiana purchase
— Be It therefore
" Resolved, That the inhabitants of
Natick in town-meeting assembled do solemnly protest against the
passage of said bill because
"1st. It will violate the plighted faith
of the nation.
"2d. Because it will allow African
Slavery to enter into 480,000 square miles of territory, from which it
has been excluded for thirty years.
"3d. Because It will tend to keep out of
these territories the farmers, mechanics and workingmen of the free
States and the poor men of the stave States now oppressed and degraded
by African Slavery who would rear in these territories free
Institutions for all.
"4th. Because it will tend to increase
the influence of Slavery over the policy of the national government.
Thus early did this town
commit itself to the cause of human liberty against the encroachments
of slavery, in the fearful contest which the wisest and most patriotic
all over the North and West foresaw was impending.
April 29, 1861, the town appropriated $5000 to be
expended under the
direction of the selectmen, for the benefit of the families of such
citizens of the town as may serve in the impending war.
The selectmen at that time
were Willard Drury, William Edwards and C. B. Travis.
Leonard Winch, Deacon John
Travis and John Cleland, Jr., were chosen a committee to consider "the
wants of those citizens who may volunteer their services for the
impending war." May 7, 1861, the town authorized the selectmen to pay
for the uniforms of the Mechanic Rifle Company, of Natick, to the
amount of $1000. It was also voted that each volunteer soldier should
be furnished with one rubber camp blanket, and one pair of woolen
stockings and each commissioned officer and musician with a revolver.
Also the town appropriated $500 to furnish arms, equipments and
clothing to volunteers, if called into actual service. July 17, 1861,
the town voted to raise the sum of $10,000, in aid of the families of
volunteers, and at the same time appropriated $1400 to meet expenses
already incurred and to carry out contracts already made with
In response to the call
Andrew, Messrs. Moses
P. Palmer, William Barnes, David L. Brown, Samuel D. Witt, Alfred G.
Howe, Frank Stetson, and others, proceeded to form a second company in
Marlboro’, and enlistment papers were procured from the State for that
purpose. In a few days the signatures of ninety-eight of the
young men in Marlboro’ and vicinity were obtained, and on the 6th of
May the company was organized by the choice of the following officers:
the 10th of May the committee appointed for the purpose reported a
constitution and by-laws, which were unanimously adopted. The
preamble was as follows:
We who have
enrolled our names upon the volunteer militia enlistment roll of
Massachusetts, and have organized ourselves into a company of riflemen
agreeably to the laws of the State, say, one and all, that whereas a
certain portion of our countrymen have rebelled and have taken up arms
against our constitutional government and have refused to obey its just
laws, under which they, as well as we, have enjoyed so many blessings,
that we have so acted because we truly believe it to be our duty, which
we owe to our country, to humanity, and to God; and we further say that
we pledge our fortunes and our sacred honor to help maintain and defend
the flag of our glorious Union from traitors at home or foes from
abroad; and we do agree to do and submit to such orders, rules, and
regulations as the law requires, and such as shall be adopted by the
company from time to time.
On the 20th of
May the company voted unanimously to offer their services to the United
States for three years or during the war.
The town of Marlboro’ furnished all the members of the
with a good gray uniform, and Hollis Loring, Esq., gave the company the
use of a hall in the Exchange Building, free of all charge.
The months of May and June were spent
in drilling and preparing for service.
The company was assigned to the Second Battalion
Riflemen, but shortly after was ordered to report for duty at Fort
Independence, which it did on the 25th* of June, and became Company I,
of the Thirteenth.
*Companies F, G, H, I, & K
arrived at the fort June 29th.
Company K was
raised in Westboro’, and
was known as the Westboro’ Rifle Company.
On the 17th of April, 1861, a warrant was issued
G. B. Sanborn, B. B. Nourse, and S. B. Howe, selectmen of the
town, calling for a town meeting to be held on the 25th of the same
month, for the appropriation of money to be expended for the raising of
a military company in the town. In accordance with this call
the meeting was held, and T. A. Smith, C. P. Winslow, J. F. B.
Benjamin Boynton, and John Bowes were chosen a committee to consider
the matter of raising a company and to report the amount necessary to
defray the expenses thereof; whereupon they presented the following
the town appropriate
five thousand dollars, to be expended in the purchase of
uniforms, pay of men while drilling, and for pay in addition to the
amount paid by the Government, when called into active service.
Resolved, That a committee of five be chosen,
whose duty it shall be to attend to the expenditure and disbursement of
hereby appropriated; and no bills shall be contracted for or paid
without the approbation and approval of said committee.
These resolutions were unanimously adopted, and an
appropriation of five thousand dollars made in accordance therewith.
A committee, consisting of G. B. Sanborn, B. B.
Nourse, and S. B. Howe, selectmen, and J. F. B. Marshall and Patrick
then appointed and empowered to raise a company. This
organized by the choice of B. B. Nourse as chairman and J. F. B.
Marshall as secretary.
The work of
recruiting was begun at once, and by the 29th of April a list of
seventy-nine names was obtained, when a petition was presented to the
Governor and Council asking for a charter for a company, to be called
the Westboro’ Rifle Company, and the same was
Before going into camp, information was received that the Government
would not accept any more volunteers for three months’
The company was then reorganized with a view to enlisting for three
years. By this change the company lost about half its number, but from
day to day recruits were added, so that when the time arrived for its
departure it had one hundred and one men, classified as follows :
Westboro; furnished fifty-six men ; Southboro’, eighteen ; Upton, nine
; Shrewsbury, nine : Hopkinton, eight : and Northboro’, one.
The work of drilling was carried on daily, and
marches made to surrounding towns, where the company was entertained by
sumptuous dinners and patriotic speeches.
In the meantime
the work of preparing
uniforms was undertaken by the women.
On the 26th of April, the day following the town
another meeting was held in the Town Hall to organize a “Soldiers’
Sewing Society.” After prayer by the Rev. Mr. Cummings of the
Unitarian Church, Mr. Marshall explained the objects of the meeting,
whereupon it was voted to organize the society by the choice of Mrs. E.
M. Phillips as president and Miss J. M. Marshall as secretary. Mrs. J.
F. B. Marshall Mrs. S. B. Lakin, Mrs. A. N. Arnold, Mrs. J. A.
Fayerweather, and Mrs. Salmon Comstock were chosen directors.
In accordance with a notice read in all the
churches on the previous Sunday, two hundred ladies with needles,
met in the Town Hall Tuesday morning April 30, and began the work of
making garments, and in a few hours they had made four dozen flannel
shirts and four dozen pairs of drawers, which were immediately
As it was
important that the company be
provided with uniforms, the ladies of this society devoted their
energies to the accomplishment of
this task, and by the 20th of June the work was completed. In
addition to the uniform, each man was provided with a fatigue-suit,
thread-bag, towels, handkerchief, soap and comb.
Chamberlain, a resident of
California, a native of Westboro', showed
his interest in the company's welfare by presenting each member with a
dagger, while the Hon. William Knowlton provided each man with a
drinking-tube. It reported at Fort Independence, under the
command of the following officers:
William P. Blackmer.
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